Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Throughout the texts that have been read, southern white women have been portrayed in a number of different lights. Although the manners in which these women are described arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the same, the end result hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed. The southern white woman has been expected to display numerous personality traits, some of which she embodied naturally, and others that were just societal constructions. Initially, these women just accepted the conflicting expectations thrust upon them. But as time went on and they realized that they did not have to live these contradictions, the southern white woman began to construct her own personality, discarding any expectations she did not see fit to exemplify. This essay will address the evolution of the southern white woman in context to her relationship to African Americans. More specifically, she is a woman who has had inconsistent personality traits forced on her. This conflict of character was pivotal in her relationship to blacks because it is the source of her eventual acceptance of the people. When they realized that their relationship to black was shaped by the hypocritical opinions of white males, they were able to reject them and form opinions of their own. Ã¢â¬Å"Like a blank page, the Confederate Woman is an unfilled space, Ã¢â¬ËpureÃ¢â¬â¢ so that the ideology of the plantation South may be inscribed on her: she is represented as being what men are not and what blacks are not - soul, not fleshÃ¢â¬ (Roberts, pg. 2). This view of the southern white woman has resonated in just about every text we have read and it encompasses every description that has been given to her. The first part of this quote should be most troubling. Calling her a blank slate reduces her to a being who is unable to produce her own thought; making her primed and ready to accept any roles or beliefs that are to be given to her. Also, it is just plain insulting. Children have often been equated to blank slates. Because of their lack of ... Free Essays on The Blank Pages Free Essays on The Blank Pages Throughout the texts that have been read, southern white women have been portrayed in a number of different lights. Although the manners in which these women are described arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the same, the end result hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed. The southern white woman has been expected to display numerous personality traits, some of which she embodied naturally, and others that were just societal constructions. Initially, these women just accepted the conflicting expectations thrust upon them. But as time went on and they realized that they did not have to live these contradictions, the southern white woman began to construct her own personality, discarding any expectations she did not see fit to exemplify. This essay will address the evolution of the southern white woman in context to her relationship to African Americans. More specifically, she is a woman who has had inconsistent personality traits forced on her. This conflict of character was pivotal in her relationship to blacks because it is the source of her eventual acceptance of the people. When they realized that their relationship to black was shaped by the hypocritical opinions of white males, they were able to reject them and form opinions of their own. Ã¢â¬Å"Like a blank page, the Confederate Woman is an unfilled space, Ã¢â¬ËpureÃ¢â¬â¢ so that the ideology of the plantation South may be inscribed on her: she is represented as being what men are not and what blacks are not - soul, not fleshÃ¢â¬ (Roberts, pg. 2). This view of the southern white woman has resonated in just about every text we have read and it encompasses every description that has been given to her. The first part of this quote should be most troubling. Calling her a blank slate reduces her to a being who is unable to produce her own thought; making her primed and ready to accept any roles or beliefs that are to be given to her. Also, it is just plain insulting. Children have often been equated to blank slates. Because of their lack of ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Character Analysis of Moliere's Comedy Tartuffe Written by Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (better known as MoliÃ ¨re), Tartuffe was first performed in 1664. However, its run was cut short because of the controversy surrounding the play. The comedy takes place in Paris in the 1660s and pokes fun at gullible people who are easily fooled by Tartuffe, a hypocrite who pretends to be deeply moral and religious. Because of its satirical nature, religious devotees felt threatened by the play, censoring it from public performances. Tartuffe the Character Although he does not appear until half-way through Act One, Tartuffe is discussed extensively by all of the other characters. Most of the characters realize that Tartuffe is a loathsome hypocrite who pretends to be a religious zealot. However, the wealthy Orgon and his mother fall for TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s illusion. Before the action of the play, Tartuffe arrives at OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s house as a mere vagrant. He masquerades as a religious man and convinces the master of the house (Orgon) to stay as a guest indefinitely. Orgon begins to adhere to TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s every whim, believing that Tartuffe is leading them on the pathway to heaven. Little does Orgon realize, Tartuffe is actually scheming to steal away OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s home, OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in marriage, and the fidelity of OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Orgon, The Clueless Protagonist The protagonist of the play, Orgon is comically clueless. Despite the warnings from family members and a very vocal maid, Orgon devotedly believes in TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s piety. Throughout most of the play, he is easily duped by Tartuffe Ã¢â¬â even when OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Damis, accuses Tartuffe of trying to seduce OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Elmire. Finally, he witnesses TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s true character. But by then it is too late. In an effort to punish his son, Orgon hands over his estate to Tartuffe who intends to kick the Orgon and his family out into the streets. Fortunately for Orgon, the King of France (Louis XIV) recognizes TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s deceitful nature and Tartuffe is arrested at the end of the play. Elmire, Orgons Loyal Wife Although she is often frustrated by her foolish husband, Elmire remains a loyal wife throughout the play. One of the more hilarious moments in this comedy takes place when Elmire asks her husband to hide and observe Tartuffe. While Orgon watches in secret, Tartuffe reveals his lustful nature as he tries to seduce Elmire. Thanks to her plan, Orgon finally figures out just how gullible he has been. Madame Pernelle, Orgons Self-Righteous Mother This elderly character begins the play by chastising her family members. She is also convinced that Tartuffe is a wise and pious man and that the rest of the household should follow his instructions. She is the last one to finally realize TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s hypocrisy. Mariane, Orgons Dutiful Daughter Originally, her father approved of her engagement to her true love, the handsome ValÃ ¨re. However, Orgon decides to cancel the arrangement and compels his daughter to marry Tartuffe. She has no desire to marry the hypocrite, yet she believes that a proper daughter should obey her father. ValÃ ¨re, Marianes True Love Headstrong and madly in love with Mariane, ValÃ ¨reÃ¢â¬â¢s heart is wounded when Mariane suggests they call off the engagement. Fortunately, Dorine, the crafty maid, helps them patch things up before the relationship falls apart. Dorine, Marianes Clever Maid The outspoken maid of Mariane. Despite her humble social status, Dorine isÃ the wisest and wittiest character in the play. She sees through TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s schemes more readily than anyone else. And she is not afraid to speak her mind, even at the risk of being scolded by Orgon. When open communication and reasoning fail, Dorine helps Elmire and the others come up with their own schemes to expose TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s wickedness.
Friday, February 14, 2020
World Bank and the International Monetary Fund - Essay Example Through lending money, the bank supports the ambition of developing nations to join the European Union. This is done through Country Assistance Strategy. Work Bank provides both technical and financial assistance to the developing countries based on the assessment of the priorities of the country, creditworthiness and past portfolio performance (Sadler, 2009). In addition, the World Bank maintains macroeconomic stability, fosters human development, promotes sustainable growth of private sector and improves business environment, and also improves governance and strengthens institutions via building inclusive and efficient public institutions. The role of International Monetary Fund in providing loans to countries is somehow similar to those of World Bank. The International Monetary Fund has a mandate to oversee international financial and monetary system as well as monitor the financial and economic policies of the member countries. This is done through surveillance which enhances international cooperation. The International Monetary Fund also puts up lending conditions that ensure borrowing countries will repay the loan and that the nation will not solve its balance of payment in a manner to negatively affect the international economy (Sadler, 2009). Summarily, International Monetary Fund fosters economic stability and global growth, and poverty reduction through
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Psychology - Essay Example Normally, these performance appraisals tend to be Ã¢â¬Å"tick the boxÃ¢â¬ exercise. This in essence creates anxiety on the side of the management and that of the employees. After the performance appraisal has been competed they should not be shelved until the next exercise but they should be looked at immediately to allow for appropriate review actions. This can help employees improve their performance. In most cases, problematic feedbacks are usually postponed or hidden or sometimes cheated about when filling the performance Appraisal form. Majority of managers do not want to report that those under them are not performing well for the fear of being responsible of their lack of promotion or a pay rise. The performance appraisal should be objective in nature. This is to say that, they should be full of professional perspectives and should not have any personal views. Usually personal views in the performance appraisals are biased and this is very detrimental. The process of perfor mance appraisal should not come as a surprise to the employees. This is because, if all emphasis is placed on the process then, there is a possibility of generating tension at the build up phase. This can also reduce motivation on the side of the employees, which as a result can lead to decreased productivity. Majority of the employees in the organization should be satisfied with the performance appraisal processes. An appropriate performance appraisal should be a truly consented abstract of what has been going on continuously in the organization between appraisals. Surely, if the appraisal process is reviewed twice or thrice annually, all the chances to sustain and direct the workers to get better are missed. This is because managing of people is a continuous process and not a one-time activity. The managers should not put more focus on the process alone as this is very dangerous but they should rather look at the continuing performance management. The managers should place their e mphasis on the reason why the performance appraisals are carried out. The main purpose why appraisals are conducted is to help employees become more effective. They also help the managers manage those under them well. The performance appraisal process should be an exercise that tries to unearth the truth about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance on the work function assigned in the organization and therefore it should be realistic and clear. Briefly, a sound performance appraisal should be unbiased and purposely a continuous two way and specific process. It should not be an exercise that brings in fear and embarrassment to the employees but an exercise that motivates them. Part 2 Recommendations about how the success of a new performance appraisal process should be evaluated The success of a new performance appraisal process can be evaluated through various ways namely: Peer evaluations The organization can form a task force of four to seven employees. The mandate of the task force s hould be to set a peer evaluation program. The task force should be to set targets and objectives of the evaluation program and can carry out a pilot program. When conducting the pilot program, participants can be persuaded to offer feedback on whether the performance measurement system is good. This is because pilot program is significant for a new performance
Friday, January 24, 2020
Structure of a tendon is made up of collagenous tissues, a fibrous protein constituted as a large portion of the organic matrix of bone and cartilage (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Also termed extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of few cells, 20% of cellular material is occupied as total tissue volume, whilst 80% accounts for extracellular matrix (approximately 70% water and 30% solids) (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Contained within these solids is a ground like substance with minor components of elastin. Due to the dense interrelation tissue of collagen it is able to sustain stability over which the mechanics of the musculoskeletal system requires. This may be in the form of fibril, whereby, collagen molecules (type 1 collagen) are synthesized and secreted by fibroblasts (France , 2010). Procollagen is formed and further condensed to tropocollagen as the basic building block of collagen (France , 2010). Across the parallel network leading to the development of fibril; cross-links are formed within collagen type 1. The cross-links allow tissues to withstand strength and function under mechanical stress (Fratzl, 2008). The solids within the extracellular contain ground like substance proteoglycans (PG). PG molecules binds extracellular water of the tendons, ensuring the matrix is a hydrated-gel like material (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Thereby the substance acts as an adhesive between microfibrils in bundles; stabilizing collagenous tissue forming connective tissue fascicles (appendix, figure 1). The functionality of tendons can be expressed by its materialization; primarily to transmit force from muscle to bone. During any form of movements the tendons encounter forces such as longitudinal, transversal and rotational (Kannus, 200... ...llagen tissue cross-links across maturation; revealing the number of cross-links decreased with growth. This suggests that a state of maturation cross-links are stabilsed to a non-reducible form (Robins et al, 1973). When stress is placed on tendons; tissue must adapt to stiffen and strengthen in response to the physical demands placed on them. Physical training during eccentric forces has been found to increase tensile strength of the tendons (Woo et al, 1981). Long periods of inactivity can disrupt the parallel structure of collagen fibers in the tendons, decrease water content, although increase collagen cross-linking (Loitz et al, 1989). The collagen turnover increases although reports suggest the amount of tendon components and overall mass is unchanged. Ultimately immobilization decreases tendon stiffness, failure load and strength (Matsumoto et al, 2003).
Thursday, January 16, 2020
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, 1999 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2002 Regulation, places a legal responsibility on employers to cut down the hazard to employees Ã¢â¬Å" so far as is moderately operable Ã¢â¬ from exposure to chemicals. It besides places a responsibility of attention to others who may be affected by any work activities-goods and services provided. A hazard appraisal if carried out right will place many control methods ; nevertheless it will besides sketch residuary factors which may still be harmful to wellness even with robust control steps in topographic point, farther controls may be required: Management controls: ( Training, Information ; Guidance ; Supervision ) : Technology controls ( Elimination ; Substitution ; Reduction ; Isolation ) . However farther controls ; an appropriate wellness surveillance government ( s ) may be required when indicated. Health surveillance will be necessary by agencies of an identified disease-adverse-health status. A condition-disease straight related to an employee by exposure to a particular-specific wellness hazard. Where a Hazard Assessment ( RA ) placing a Ã¢â¬Å" sensible likeliness Ã¢â¬ that it occurred as portion of their on the job conditions. And it can be established under known-valid techniques ( e.g. sampling/laboratory proving ) . Previous related cases of work related sick wellness conditions in similar industry. E.g. ( Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations, 1995 ) , ( RIDDOR ) ( Health and Safety Executive ) , ( HSE stats ) . ( Insurance claims, benchmarking similar industries ) . Do we use/supply carcinogens ; solvent fume-vapour merchandises. Make our employees/individuals use ( Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 1992 ) , during their normal on the job activities. ( Ã¢â¬Å" HSE Health Surveillance at Work HSG61, HSE Preventing Asthma at Work Ã¢â¬ ) . Taken from: Ã¢â¬â ( The Health and Safety Executive Statistics 2010/11 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" The current estimation of the one-year figure of occupational malignant neoplastic disease deceases in Great Britain is around 8000. Around 15 % of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD ) including bronchitis and emphysema ) may be work related. This suggests there could be some 4000 ( COPD ) deceases each twelvemonth due to past occupational exposures to exhausts, chemicals and dusts Ã¢â¬ .4000 Number of Deaths.300025002000150040001982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010Death certifications Disablement benefitDirect EXSPOSURE MEASUREMENT SUERVEY METHODOLOGY:TRICHLOROETHYLENE & A ; TOLUENE.Regulation ( 10 ) ( COSHH, 2002 ) outlines the demand to supervise employee Ã¢â¬Ës exposure to risky substances. One such technique is Ã¢â¬Å" Air Sampling Ã¢â¬ , ( EH40, 2005 2nd Edition 2011 ) , Workplace Exposure Limits. A substance given-assigned a specified ( W EL ) Ã¢â¬Å" is the maximal concentration of an airborne substance averaged over a referenced clip period, to which an person ( s ) may be exposed by inspiration Ã¢â¬ ) . ( COSHH, 2002 ) Regulation 7 ( 7 ) Ã¢â¬â ( degree Celsius ) ( Ã¢â¬Å" Exposure to Asthmagens & A ; Carcinogens Ã¢â¬ ) requires an employer to cut down exposure Ã¢â¬Å" so far as is sensible operable Ã¢â¬ . In our instance it will be necessary to transport out a methodological air trying programme as outlined by ( COSHH, 2002 ) , ordinance ( 10 ) . ( EH40, 2005 ) : outlines exposure Ã¢â¬Ës to Trichloroethylene-Toluene as: Ã¢â¬â 100 ppm for 8hr long term exposure, 200 ppm for 15min short term exposure. Monitoring Procedure: To set up an exposure degree for both dissolvers a Ã¢â¬Å" Personal full-shift time-weighted-average ( TWA ) needs be established Ã¢â¬ . Monitoring must be arranged at the Ã¢â¬Å" external respiration zone Ã¢â¬ , the unit is normally worn on the lapel of the trial topic, the pump unit attached to an person Ã¢â¬Ës belt, ( HSE, MDHS 70 ) . The chosen unit: a ( Casella Vortex IS ) , ( IS ) per se safe ( spark-ignition cogent evidence ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Mk 42 Ã¢â¬ , Class 1 to BS1259 point. This unit is industry recognised for its truth in bring forthing effectual consequences for Ã¢â¬Å" Personal-Dose Ã¢â¬ monitoring-measurement techniques and would be appropriately effectual in this instance. Ã¢â¬Å" Stainless steel Ã¢â¬ trying tubings are used integrating Ã¢â¬Å" SKC 226-357 sorbent tubing tenax Ã¢â¬ , infused with 250mg of sorbent lined activated wood coal, calibrated to pull air at a known rate between 0.5-3.5liters/min. Unit standardization will b e necessary, by ( Ã¢â¬Å" Field Rotameter Ã¢â¬ ) to find flow rates. Each individual is equipment with a device at the start of their displacement ; they Ã¢â¬Ëre instructed to transport out their day-to-day undertaking ( s ) , limited to the usage of solvent compounds in the preset countries. All breaks non-associated actions ; other activities are non calculated during the monitoring procedure, nevertheless will be recorded as portion of the exposure computations as ( 0 ) ratings. It will be necessary to supervise all employees as the work store country constitutes their primary location. The monitoring procedure should take around two hebdomads to finish as all six persons have to be assessed. However sampling readings are farther required for the chemical shop country. The operation has seven employees ; nevertheless one is the receptionist, one a director. Normally the monitoring procedure would be 1-5 ratio it would be prudent to include all five employees plus the director as portion of the monitoring programme. Current on the job times are: 8am-6pm Mon-Fri, 8am-12midday Saturday. ( EH40, 2005 2nd Edition 2011 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Time increases may be split into several Sessionss for the intent of monitoring/sampling, taking history of remainder & A ; meal interruptions etc. E.g. Ã¢â¬Å" : Trichloroethylene-Toluene Working period Exposure ( mg.m-3 ) Duration of trying ( H ) 08:00-10:30 0.32 2.5 10:45-12:45 0.07 2 13:30-15:30 0.2 2 15:45-17:15 0.1 1.5 Exposure is calculated as ( 0 ) during the periods 10:30 to 10:45, 12:45 to 13:30 and 15:30 to 15:45. The 8-hour TWA = ( 0.32 x 2.5 ) + ( 0.07 x 2 ) + ( 0.20 x 2 ) + ( 0.10 x 1.5 ) + ( 0 x 1.25 ) 8 0.80 + 0.14 + 0.40 + 0.15 + 0 8 = 0.19 mg.m-3 Around 1-10 tubings will be used as Ã¢â¬Å" mention tubings Ã¢â¬ . The monitoring result ( s ) are really much dependant upon the sampling-analysis findings, nevertheless if past monitoring informations is believable, the debut of a Health Surveillance government may be necessary. Sampling analysis demands to be carried out by an independent beginning, a specialist research lab to find concentration values. The procedure used is: Ã¢â¬Å" Thermal Desorption Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" gas mass spectrum chromatography, ( GC-MS ) . ( GC-MS ) represents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure and library designation for each compound is extended. ( GC-MS ) is extremely recommended by industry for volatile chemical contaminations. The analysis process must be undertaken by a UKAS accredited installation. Inside the edifice are four countries:Outline Plan.Extractor FanChemical ShopMain WorkshopExtractor FanDoorRest RoomsDoorReception AreaDoorEngineering Process Controls.Pr eciseness Engineering Ltd has traditional used dissolvers in their metal degreasing and surface cleansing operations. The more common groups associated with this procedure are: chlorinated dissolver types such as: Ã¢â¬â Perchloroethylene, Dichloromethane ( Methylene Chloride ) trichloroethane and Toluene. Precision Engineering Ltd has preponderantly used Trichloroethylene ( CICH=CCI2 ) and Toluene ( C6H5CH3 ) as their preferable dissolver for operation use. The reclassification of Trichloroethylene ( Ã¢â¬Ëtrike Ã¢â¬Ë ) , to a class 2 carcinogen, ( European Union, 2001 ) , ( EU ) and comes under ( Risk Phase R45, R42 /43 ) , respiratory sensitiser's/mutagens ( Risk Phase R46 ) . Primary statute law covering these countries include: ( Chemicals Hazards Information and Packaging for Supply Regulations, 2009 ) ( CHIP4 ) . Further statute law is covered by: ( Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2002 ) , together with the ( Solvent Emissions Directive, 1999 ) , ( SED ) and is aimed at commanding ( VOCs ) volatile organic compounds, the intent of this study may be outside of the remit of ( SED, 1999 ) ordinances, but ( Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & A ; Restriction of Chemicals Regulations, 2009 ) , ( REACH ) , will hold an impact on the operations as we Ã¢â¬Ëre a down-stream client. Alternative adept advice may necessitate to be kind from the Local Council Environmental Department and perchance Governmental Environmental Agencies. All Category 1-2 carcinogens have specific demands under ( COSHH, 2002 ) : we must so see utilizing a hierarchy of control methodological analysis: See Substitution, the usage of lupus erythematosus ( VOC ) in the operation ; where Ã¢â¬Ëreasonably operable Ã¢â¬Ë . If non Ã¢â¬Ëreasonably operable Ã¢â¬Ë Full or partial Enclosure of the metal degreasing process, costs associated with a decrease in stuffs may finance the enclosure outgo. Using a lupus erythematosus ( VOC ) may significantly impact statute law ( SED, 1999 ) . Using the ( HSE, ENG information Sheet 40 ) , a to the full designed ; constructed ; operated and right maintained degreasing procedure can be maintained at exposure degrees of 20 ppm and below. Further considerations ( HSE, ENG information Sheet 40 ) , outline the demand to be after for waste direction processs ; sums of chemical ingestion, its storage ; its disposal by Who and How?HIERARCHY of CONTROL.The practicalities of Elimination at this occasion are limited ; nevertheless careful consideration to alternate methods through Substitution should be looked at traveling frontward. Alternate replacements may include Aqueous and semi-Aqueous cleansing stuffs, careful consideration-advice from the provider should be obtaine d prior to any permutation. Any mechanical ; works or chemical alterations would necessitate a new ( COSHH, 2002 ) ( RA ) as the company presently employs more than five employees. Details-records of any important alterations are required under ( COSHH, 2002 ) ; this includes active engagement during the reappraisal procedure by employees, including any relevant information ; preparation and communicating feedback. Substituting current dissolvers may present other important dangers which will necessitate farther rating. Many organic dissolvers are flammable highly-flammable in their belongingss. E.g. If an organic dissolver has a Flash Point of 32oc or less, we will hold to do commissariats in order to run into the ( Ã¢â¬Å" Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations, 2005 Ã¢â¬ ) , ( DSEAR ) . However higher-flashpoint dissolvers do non co-inside with the ordinances, but provisions-controls will still use. Specific counsel is available for flammable chemicals-liquids, ( i.e. Safe Use and Handling of Flammable Liquids ; HSG140 Ã¢â¬ ) ,SOLVENT REDUCTION.The local ( HSE ) or Fire & A ; Rescue Authority purely enforce fire safety ; fire safeguards, under the ( Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 ) , the ( Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, 1999 ) and ( Ã¢â¬Å" Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations, 2005 Ã¢â¬ ) , ( DSEAR ) . Chemical storage-containment is paramount. However so are the measures and differing types of chemicals, as they pr esent a important Fire jeopardy every bit good as holding a damaging consequence on the environment if released? An enclosed system attack could cut down the measures on site: Ã¢â¬â ( capital outgo out-lay, nest eggs ) , making instant fiscal inducements. One major jeopardy that needs immediate attending, the vas containers in which the chemicals are stored are unsuitable in type, constructed from Plastic, for our intents we require metal containment storage units as per-manufacture-industry counsel.SOLVENT ISOLATION.Guaranting the chemicals-solvents are contained within a individual designated country: ( Chemical room ) . Access to the room is non controlled ; a locked door policy needs to be brought in along with a sign-in-sign-out policy along with measures, ( telling fiscal control ) . Adoption of rigorous control policy will besides cut down the contact exposure to our employees. Where Ã¢â¬Ëreasonable operable Ã¢â¬Ë the usage of an enclosed methods should be evaluated. Serious consideration for the usage of an ( LEV ) system for the chemical shop room should be considered. However the fact that the chief workshop country has TWO mechanical extraction fans inoperable, may hold contributed to the historical high exposure degrees as indicated. E.g. An extraction rate for the chemical shop room of: Ã¢â¬â 640-915m3/hr per M2 surface working-area is extremely recommended.( PPE Regulations, 1992 ) , Personal Protective Equipment.Merely used as a last resort, the ( COSHH Regulations, 2002 ) ( Fifth Edition ) in con-junction with ( PPE Regulations, 2002 ) lineation that equipment must conform to specific demands for its usage. More specific demands outline the usage of ( RPE ) , respiratory protective equipment, ( Organic Vapour Masks ) , if a ( RA ) has indicated the demand. Its usage requires specialist preparation: Ã¢â¬Å" fit trial Ã¢â¬ .METAL WORKING FL UIDS ( MWF WET-WORK )Normally associated with engineering-manufacturing and used as a coolant ; normally referred to as Ã¢â¬Å" slurry ; soup or white H2O Ã¢â¬ . Coolant Ã¢â¬Ës can be grouped into 4-classes: ( Ã¢â¬Å" straight oil ; soluble oil ; synthetics ; semi-synthetics Ã¢â¬ ) . Associated health-effects exposure paths: aerosol breathing-airway and dermal-contact, local effects.Monitoring and CONTROL STRATEGIES.An ( IOM ) Ã¢â¬Å" SKC-225-70A, Institute of Occupational Medicine ( inhalable dust ) sampling station monitoring scheme would be an effectual option for measuring contact exposure. Personal exposure bounds for oil mist: 5mg/m-3 8hr ( TWA ) ; 10mg/m-3 ( STEL ) . The unit can be set-up to mensurate atom affair concentration from 1AÃ µgm-3. The units rule map is to pull a volume of air onto a aggregation substrate-filter, dust mass is collected and is determined by weighing the substrate prior-after sampling. The ( IOM ) unit requires a pump unit with an air-flow rate of 2.0 AÃ ± 0.1 litre/min across the sampling clip period and has a trying Ã¢â¬Å" prejudice of less than AÃ ±5 % to BS EN481 specification. Personal monitoring, the unit is attached to the person at the Ã¢â¬Å" external respiration zone Ã¢â¬ , the pump is connected by a tubing placed on a harness ; belt ; normally the sampling station is placed at the take a breathing zone ( 30cm ) from the oral cavity. Therefore the unit is mounted on the upper-chest, collar-bone country. Unit standardization is required a flow-rate 0.1 litre/min measured against a primary criterion ( bubble flow metre ) as they Ã¢â¬Ëre readings do non necessitate pressure-temperature standardization, traceable to Ã¢â¬Å" national criterions Ã¢â¬ ( MDHS14 ) . Personal monitoring ; the person is equipment with ( IOM ) device at the start of their displacement ; they Ã¢â¬Ëre instructed to transport out their day-to-day undertaking ( s ) , limited to the usage of ( MWF ) in the preset countries. All breaks non-associated actions ; other activities are non calculated during the monitoring procedure, nevertheless will be recorded as portion of the exposure computations as ( 0 ) ratings. A full displacement exposure is recorded ; samples are collected, stray so packed-stored to avoid taint. Largely dependent on the Numberss involved with the ( MWF ) procedure, the monitoring will take 4-5 yearss. The ( IOM ) unit uses a cassette trying device which is sealed after usage. Ã¢â¬Å" A process utilizing gravimetric-chemical analysis for entire inhalable particulates ( TIP ) affecting solvent extraction utilizing hexane and dimethyl sulphoxide followed by analysis utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy ( GC-MS ) Ã¢â¬ under laboratory con ditions.CONTROL STRATEGY.Hierarchy of controlThe Elimination of ( MWF ) at this occasion is limited: However Substitution of high solute-oil content could be considered by utilizing water-mixed fluids, nevertheless if technology controls are applied exposure degrees can be maintained below 5mg/m-3 8hr ( TWA ) ; 10mg/m-3 ( STEL ) if suited and sufficient processs are implemented/maintained.Technology CONTROLS.The age of the machine, guarantee that all Planned, Routine, Statutory, care governments are carried out, ( Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations, 1998 ) . The usage of any Enclosures, Local fumes Ventilation ( LEV ) : 640-915m-3/hr per m-2 surface working-area, splash guarding must be enforced if fitted. The distance of the operator to the machine has an impact. Particular accent on machine oil flow rates ( splash-back ) , air cleaning/drying methods require monitoring. Increasing Fresh-Air and diminishing recirculation of General Ventilation systems. If air-flow is b lown onto the machine an person is likely to be exposed to increased degrees of contaminations. Sum fluids, the remotion of Ã¢â¬Å" swarf-fines Ã¢â¬ from the mixture, debut of filters ( e.g. mesh-drum, or magnetic filter type ) as differing procedures may be carried out on the unit, ( grinding-turning-milling etc. ) . Evidence shows that the presence of mulcts in mineral oils interferes with the public presentation of a machine and is a Ã¢â¬Å" factor taking to dermatitis Ã¢â¬ . ( MWF ) suppliers-industry criterions outline taint degrees for swarf-fines over 100 ppm for fluid ( Neat oil ) public presentation is regarded as grossly contaminated. ( COSHH, 2002 ) ordinance 7.7 ( a ) agenda 2A lineations regular amount cheques for bacterial-endotoxin taint as portion of a hebdomadal cheque government. An upper bound of 106 CFU/ml is recommended and consideration on unstable direction demands to be implemented. Additives such as ( biocide ) can be used to top-up degrees ; nevertheless both Ã¢â¬Å" replenishment-replacement Ã¢â¬ may impact bacteriological water-mix contents and a hebdomadal PH trial should be carried out. Exposure Assessment Document EH74/4 ( MWFs ) ( HSE, 2000 ) , unstable strength if incorrect, ( industries specified tolerances ) has a double consequence: Lowered machine public presentation. Increased inhalation-dermal exposure, bacterial-fungal taint.MANAGEMENT CONTORLS.( Personal Protective Equipment Regulations, 1992 ) , Workplace ( Health, Safety and public assistance ) Regulations, ( 1992 )( HSE, 2012 ) Ã¢â¬Å" Provide 0.4 millimeter nitrile baseball mitts to BS EN 374 criterion. These protect for up to eight hours merely. These baseball mitts are usually thin plenty to supply sleight. Supply thicker baseball mitts to BS EN 374 and BS EN 388 criterions to protect against scratchs and crisp borders Ã¢â¬ when cleaning Ã¢â¬Å" amounts Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å" Provide oculus protection to BS EN 166 criterion where there is a hazard of sprinkling. Provide overalls and do certain forearms are covered Ã¢â¬ . However there is an entanglement menace, so utmost cautiousness is required when utilizing baseball mitts for machine use. The usage of a Permit to work system is necessary for amount cleansing. Ensure there are suited Ã¢â¬Å" personal decontamination Ã¢â¬ processs for workers ; guarantee ( PPE ) has been exhaustively cleaned before farther usage. A rigorous NO Ã¢â¬Ëoily rags Ã¢â¬Ë policy ( pockets ) as portion of preparation, supervising methods. The usage of pre-after work enrolment-emulsifier picks as a tegument attention government needs to be enforced. The proviso of showers demands to be addressed, particularly anterior to the ingestion nutrient cut downing taint by consumption.HEALTH SURVEILLANCE STRATEGIES:TRICHLOROETHYLENE-TOLUENE & A ; ( MWF ) .TRICHLOROETHYLENE & A ; TOLUENEAnnual or periodic medical screening/or biological-biological consequence monitoring. Baseline appraisal needs to be carried out for oculus map ; skin upsets ; liver-kidney map ; cardiovascular-nervous system, respiratory maps including Spirometry trials. This can be done as portion of a new employment government, or when persons are moved in to a new environment or occupation undertakin g. Toluene can besides impact hearing, impact vision ; color loss with perennial exposure, Toluene is besides toxic for reproduction. Self-checks, developing to recognize marks of illness facets such giddiness, lethargy demand to be reported instantly. A questionnaire turn toing smoking & A ; imbibing should be distributed ; the effects-interactions between Trichloroethylene & A ; Toluene exposure in the workplace and societal confounders should besides be addressed by company wellness professional as an intercession scheme.MWF DERAMAL EXAMINATIONS.Skin scrutinies are preponderantly used to place tegument upsets, ( occupational nurse-hygienist ) . Generally ocular scrutinies of the tegument for dermatitis are carried out, ( Hands, forearms, lower-legs ) but a questionnaire can be used to supplement the procedure. Health-surveillance is usually assessed yearly or every six-months if required. An appropriate control scheme ; baseline comparing: ( within six hebdomads of employment ) should be carried out.MWF RESPIRATORY CONDITIONS.MWF increases the hazard of developing: ( Asthma ; Bronchitis & A ; respiratory piece of land ) external respiration issues. Lung map Spirometry trials can be arranged if indicated by a wellness appraisal. An one-year questionnaire on external respiration can be issued, nevertheless relentless symptoms should be reported: ( supervisor, occupational nurse etc. ) . An appropriate control scheme ; baseline comparing: ( within six hebdomads of employment Lung map trial ) . Further controls can be arranged ; ( e.g. allergy-blood trials, chest X raies, or a more comprehensive Methacholine challenge trial ) . Generally wellness surveillance records are kept for the continuance of the person Ã¢â¬Ës employment. However some ordinances ( Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, 1999 ) , ( COSHH, 2002 ) , outline records are kept for up to ( 50 old ages ) . An person may bespeak a transcript of their wellness surveillance records if they leave the company, ( informations protection act, 2000 ) . An employer Ã¢â¬Ës responsibility of attention does non stop with wellness surveillance, it is non adequate that examinations-questionnaires are issued. Any feedback-data must be analysed and farther appropriate control schemes must be considered and addressed, where necessary employees may hold to be assigned other responsibilities. The positive facets of wellness surveillance may non ever be evident by all. By affecting employees at all phases dispels concerns that any reported symptoms are concealed, but how the programme can be evaluated and improved.APPENDIX 1 EMPLOYEE COMPLAINT SUMMARYCOMPLAINT 1Staff are kicking of giddiness, lassitude and some minor ocular damage. These symptoms occur when they enter the chemical shop and when they use the dissolvers provided, in the workshop country. The symptoms occur on most yearss. Following treatments with the Occupational Hygienist, it is their sentiment that the symptoms in the workshop are about certain to originate from exposure to Trichloroethylene vapor in the air although the consequence of Toluene has non been estimated. Historical monitoring records, carried out utilizing index tubings, show that degrees of trichloroethane between 300 to 400 ppm have been identified during the old twelvemonth, although monitoring was stopped due to staff deficits. Management are non nevertheless confident about the truth of these consequences and no measuring of methylbenzene has been attempted.COMPLAINT 2One of the employees has raised concerns sing the possible wellness effects originating from exposures to Metal Working Fluids ( MWF ) at the premises. He has seen on the cyberspace that ( MWF ) can do respiratory and Skin jobs.Carry out Baseline Qualitative Exposure SurveyDo initial exposure studies show that exposure a degree are good below ( OELs ) and is at that place a likeliness that they will stay so? Supply justification-evidence for your reply.Document study and record monitoring findingsDoes the elaborate exposure study show that exposures are good below permitted ( OELs ) degrees?Ensure a to the full validated statistical sampling and appraisal methodological analysis has been employed?Is everyday exposure supervising techniques required?Supply justification-evidence for your reply.Transport out or go onEveryday Exposure Monitoring.Has everyday exposure supervising shown exposures to be above permitted ( OELs ) ? APPENDIX 2 DIRECT EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT SERVEY METHODOLOGY.Make the initial exposure studies indicate that exposure degrees are above or potentially above recommended personal exposure bounds ( OELs ) ?YesNoCarry out a Detailed Quantitative Exposure Survey No or Not CertainDoes the elaborate exposure study show that exposures are above permitted ( OELs ) degrees?Ensure a to the full validated statistical sampling and appraisa l methodological analysis has been employed?YesNoYesNo or Not CertainNoYesYesHas everyday exposure supervising shown that exposure degrees are good below OELs and is it likeliness to stay so?Supply justification-evidence for your reply.NoNoIs there a demand or demand to go on routine/periodic exposure monitoring?Supply justification-evidence for your reply. YesYesNoDevelop or amend the Risk Control PlanFeed into Health ( RA ) or reexamine bing controls.Clearly place any Employees exposed by the jeopardies.Identify exposed procedures, tasks-areas where jeopardy exposure could happenInitial Identification of jeopardy ( s ) and their harmful effects to wellness.Baseline COSHH Health ( RA )Review all operating Area processes, including procedure flow by physical review of the Area ( s ) /site.APPENDIX 3 COSHH HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FLOW CHARTAssess-measure or corroborate the exposure.Analyse the effectivity of bing hazard control steps.Continuous COSHH Health ( RA )Review-Amend if requi red, or earlier if alterations to procedures or new developments occur or are proposed.Analyse any possible wellness hazard ( s ) of the risky exposure.Prioritize the wellness hazard ( s ) consequently( High, Medium, Low ) .Concept a hazard registry & A ; set precedences for action.Develop, implement & A ; monitor a Hazard Control Action Plan orReview current-existing Risk Control Action Plan ( s ) .LOW MEDIUM & A ;RISKS CRITICAL RISKSContinuous COSHH Health ( RA )Manage as portion of the uninterrupted betterment procedure within the overall COSHH-health hazard action/management system and through bing set ( s ) of control steps, where nowadays.Issues Based or Targeted COSHH ( HRA )Quantitatively assess exposure ( s ) utilizing validated statistical trying techniques and assessment methodological analysis, every bit good as measuring whether proposed or bing control steps are equal and appropriate to command wellness hazard ( s ) to below in agreement criterions e.g. occupational ex posure bounds ( OELs ) .Amend bing Risk Control Action Plan, use alternate and/or extra control steps when required.Maintain accurate-detailed and systematic COSHH wellness ( RAs )APPENDIX 4 MWF QUESTIONNAIREDermatitis QuestionnaireQ1 Name Q2 Date of birth Q3 Sex of topic Male Female Q4 Job rubric Q5 Production country ( s ) and machine figure Q6 In the past 12 months have you had any of the following symptoms? No Yes Redness & A ; swelling of custodies or fingers Crack of tegument on custodies or finger Blisters on custodies or fingers Flaking or grading of tegument on hands/fingers Itch of fingers/hands, with clefts or splits Musca volitanss, inflammation or puffiness of any other portion of your organic structure? Q7 Did any of these jobs last for more than three hebdomads? No Yes Q8 Did any of these jobs occur more than one time? No Yes Q9 Does your tegument acquire better with periods off work? No Yes Q10 What are the chief types of oils or coolants that you work with? Q11 Do you use H2O immune baseball mitts while managing cutting oils or constituents covered with oil? No Go to Q13 Yes Not applicable Go to Q13 Q12 If yes, do you besides wear cotton line drive baseball mitts? No Yes Q13 Do you wear barrier picks or other manus attention merchandises? No Name Yes Q14 How do you clean your custodies at work and how frequently? Q15 Do you/ hold you of all time suffered from eczema or psoriasis? No YesTHANKS FOR TAKING TIME TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Easter Island has a unique history that outlines key theories of how man can have detrimental effects on nature. With our beliefs, customs and general life needs, societies become dependent on our environment and resources. This can result in an irreversible destruction of an environment and Easter Island has proven this to be posable. With a society becoming hugely dependant on the limited resources available and failure to understand the need to preserve these resources for future generations caused immense pressure. The population confronted problems which they neglected to address these issues where that start of a catastrophic population decline. Literature examining Easter Island is contradictive as well as abundant, this literatureÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Due to Easter IslandÃ¢â¬â¢s location, the climate was considerably different to that of what the Rapa Nui people were accustomed too. As a result of the unfamiliar climate conditions agriculture become exceedingly di fficult, because of the strong winds which brought with them disturbed salt spray, cooler temperature and variation in rainfall (Hunt, 2006, p. 413) and (Wright, 2004, p. 59). These factors constructed an environment that was not suitable for a variety of foods to be cultivated; this added to the problems that the Rapa Nui people had to endure. Diamond (2005) also reiterates Wright and HuntÃ¢â¬â¢s evidence supporting the same claim that Easter Island had geographical issues which become challenging for the new settlers. However, their society thrived, with a population reaching and possibly exceeding 15,000 (Hunt, 2006, p. 412). As the population grew so did the use of resources Pakandam (2009) identityÃ¢â¬â¢s how the Rapa Nui people begin to over exploit their resources and underestimated the problems this would cause. The Rapa Nui people relied heavily on the islands natural resources for their survival and for generations these resources continued to be consumed at a deple ting rate. Caswell (2008) points out how this civilisation was completely oblivious to the destruction they were causing. They contributed to deforestation, stripping the soils of nutrients and exploiting food sources such as populations ofShow MoreRelated The Irish Troubles: Yeats Poetry Essays2024 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesNobel Prize for literature in 1924. Yeats realized early on the oppression and austerity that both he and his fellow countrymen endured. YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ father was a lawyer, who later pursued a career as a painter. In 1867, the family followed him to London, where William spent most of his youth. Upon his return to Dublin, Yeats furthered his studies at the Metropolitan School of Art. 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